**Faraday's Laws**

*First Law states:*

Whenever the magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes, an

EMF is always induced in it. Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic

flux, an EMF is induced in that conductor.

Whenever the magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes, an

EMF is always induced in it. Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic

flux, an EMF is induced in that conductor.

*Second Law states:*

The magnitude of the induced EMF is equal to the rate of change

of flux-linkages.

The magnitude of the induced EMF is equal to the rate of change

of flux-linkages.

Explanation. Suppose a coil has N turns and flux through it

changes from an initial value of 1 φ webers to the final value of 2 φ ,

webers in time t seconds. Then remembering that by flux-linkages

is meant the product of number of turns by the flux linked with the

coil, we have the following relation:

Initial flux linkages = 1φ N . And final flux linkages = 2 φ N

Then the induced EMF is

Usually a minus sign is given to the right-hand side expression to

signify the fact that the induced EMF sets up current in such a

direction that magnetic effect produced by it opposes the very cause

producing it.

signify the fact that the induced EMF sets up current in such a

direction that magnetic effect produced by it opposes the very cause

producing it.