Wednesday, April 15, 2009

Energy-Efficient Motors Motors

Energy-Efficient Motors

Efficiency is an important factor to consider when buying or rewinding an electric motor. This Technical Brief answers some frequently asked questions about how to obtain the most efficient motor at the lowest price while avoiding some common problems.

Energy Savings by means of Energy Efficient Electric Motors
The electric motors consume a significant amount of
electricity in the industrial and in the tertiary sectors of
the European Union. Because of its simplicity and
robustness the three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor
is the prime mover of the modern industry. The electricmotor
manufacturers are seeking methods for improving
the motor efficiencies, which resulted in a new
generation of electric motors that are known as energyefficient

This paper deals with energy conservation by
installing energy efficient motor (EEM) instead of
standard efficiency motor. This transition becomes a
necessity as a direct result of limitation in energy sources
and escalating energy prices. In the end of this analysis,
there are different practical cases in where EEM is
compared with standard motors and rewound motor. In
all these cases energy savings can be achieved and the
simple payback is less of five years. So, it is very
interesting the implementation of EEM in the industry.


A Novel Analysis of Energy Efficiency Motors and Power Controllers

Author: s.sankar

A novel analysis of energy efficiency motors and power controllers

Voltage Control

Voltage alone can be used as a source of intelligence when the switched capacitors are applied at point where the circuit voltage decreases as circuit load increases. Generally, where they are applied the voltage should decrease as circuit load increases and the drop in voltage should be around 4 – 5 % with increasing load.

Voltage is the most common type of intelligence used in substation applications, when maintaining a particular voltage is of prime importance. This type of control is independent of load cycle. During light load time and low source voltage, this may give leading PF at the substation, which is to be taken note of. KILOVAR Control

Automatic Power Factor Control Relay

It controls the power factor of the installation by giving signals to switch on or off power factor correction capacitors. Relay is the brain of control circuit and needs contactors of appropriate rating for switching on/off the capacitors.

There is a built-in power factor transducer, which measures the power factor of the installation and converts it to a DC voltage of appropriate polarity. This is compared with a reference voltage, which can be set by means of a knob calibrated in terms of power factor.

When the power factor falls below setting, the capacitors are switched on in sequence. The relays are provided with First in First out (FIFO) and First in Last Out (FILO) sequence. The capacitors controlled by the relay must be of the same rating and they are switched on/off in linear sequence. To prevent over correction hunting, a dead band is provided. This setting determines the range of phase angle over which the relay does not respond; only when the PF goes beyond this range, the relay acts. When the load is low, the effect of the capacitors is more pronounced and may lead to hunting. Under current blocking (low current cut out) shuts off the relay, switching off all capacitors one by one in sequence, when load current is below setting. Special timing sequences ensure that capacitors are fully discharged before they are switched in. This avoids dangerous over voltage transient. The solid state indicating lamps (LEDS) display various functions that the operator should know and also and indicate each capacitor switching stage.

Intelligent Power Factor Controller (IPFC)

This controller determines the rating of capacitance connected in each step during the first hour of its operation and stores them in memory. Based on this measurement, the IPFC switches on the most appropriate steps, thus eliminating the hunting problems normally associated with capacitor switching.

Energy Efficient Motors
Minimising Watts Loss in Motors

Improvements in motor efficiency can be achieved without compromising motor performance - at higher cost - within the limits of existing design and manufacturing technology.

From the Table .1, it can be seen that any improvement in motor efficiency must result from reducing the Watts losses. In terms of the existing state of electric motor technology, a reduction in watts losses can be achieved in various ways.

All of these changes to reduce motor losses are possible with existing motor design and manufacturing technology. They would, however, require additional materials and/or the use of higher quality materials and improved manufacturing processes resulting in increased motor cost.

Energy Efficient Motor

Table 1

Thus energy-efficient electric motors reduce energy losses through improved design, better materials, and improved manufacturing techniques. Replacing a motor may be justifiable solely on the electricity cost savings derived from an energy-efficient replacement. This is true if the motor runs continuously, power rates are high, the motor is oversized for the application, or its nominal efficiency has been reduced by damage or previous rewinds. Efficiency comparison for standard and high efficiency motors is shown in Figure 2.


Technical aspect of energy efficiency motors

Energy-efficient motors last longer, and may require less maintenance. At lower temperatures, bearing grease lasts longer; required time between re-greasing increases. Lower temperatures translate to long lasting insulation. Generally, motor life doubles for each 10°C reduction in operating temperature.

Select energy-efficient motors with a 1.15 service factor, and design for operation at 85% of the rated motor load.

Electrical power problems, especially poor incoming power quality can affect the operation of energy-efficient motors.

Speed control is crucial in some applications. In polyphase induction motors, slip is a measure of motor winding losses. The lower the slip, the higher the efficiency. Less slippage in energy efficient motors results in speeds about 1% faster than in standard counterparts.

Starting torque for efficient motors may be lower than for standard motors. Facility managers should be careful when applying efficient motors to high torque applications.

Soft Starter

When starting, AC Induction motor develops more torque than is required at full speed. This stress is transferred to the mechanical transmission system resulting in excessive wear and premature failure of chains, belts, gears, mechanical seals, etc. Additionally, rapid acceleration also has a massive impact on electricity supply charges with high inrush currents drawing +600% of the normal run current.

Soft Starter

The use of Star Delta only provides a partial solution to the problem. Should the motor slow down during the transition period, the high peaks can be repeated and can even exceed direct on line current. Soft starter (see Figure 10.5) provides a reliable and economical solution to these problems by delivering a controlled release of power to the motor, thereby providing smooth, stepless acceleration and deceleration. Motor life will be extended as damage to windings and bearings is reduced. Soft Start & Soft Stop is built into 3 phase units, providing controlled starting and stopping with a selection of ramp times and current limit settings to suit all applications

Soft Starter: Starting current, Stress profile during starting

Advantages of Soft Start

Less mechanical stress

Improved power factor

Lower maximum demand

Less mechanical maintenance

About the Author:

Assistant professor in lord venkateswara engineering college.I am doing phd in sathyabama university, Tamil Nadu,India.

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